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Ann Rehabil Med 2013 Apr; 37(2): 157-166
Proteomic Changes in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle After Botulinum Toxin A Injection
Nami Han, MD1, Hyun Dong Kim, MD1, Mi-Ja Eom, MD1, Jun Myeong You, MD1, Jin Han, MD2, Hyoung Kyu Kim, PhD2, Mi Seon Kang, MD3
1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Mitochondrial Signaling Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, 3Department of Pathology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective To observe the changes in protein expression induced by botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection and to characterize the molecular and cellular action of mechanisms of BoNT-A injection on skeletal muscles using proteomic elements as biomarkers.
Methods BoNT-A was injected into left gastrocnemius muscles of 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (2 months of age) at a dosage of 5 units/kg body weight. For the controls same volume of normal saline was injected to right gastrocnemius muscle of each rat. Muscle samples were obtained at 4 time points (3 rats per time point): 3, 7, 14, and 56 day post-injection. To reveal the alterations in muscle protein, we performed 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and compared Botox group and normal saline group at each time point. Altered protein spots in 2DE were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS) proteomics analysis.
Results Compared with normal saline group, 46 protein spots showed changed protein expression. Twelve protein spots demonstrated increased volume and 34 protein spots demonstrated decreased volume. Among spots of decreased volume, 17 spots showed statistically significant differences. Thirty-eight identified proteins were associated with alterations in energy metabolism, muscle contractile function, transcription, translation, cell proliferation, and cellular stress response.
Conclusion BoNT-A gives influences on muscle contractile function and energy metabolism directly or indirectly besides neurotoxic effects. Proteomic expression provides better understanding about the effect of BoNT-A on skeletal muscle.
Botulinum toxins, Proteomics, Skeletal muscle, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Ann Rehabil Med 2013 Apr; 37(2): 157-166

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